Critical Role of Trichloramine Interaction with Dichloramine for N-Nitrosamine Formation during Breakpoint Chlorination

Yi Hsueh Chuang*, Ting Yuan Chen, Chia Shun Chou, Li Kang Chu, Chun Yao Hou, Aleksandra Szczuka


研究成果: Article同行評審

1 引文 斯高帕斯(Scopus)


Breakpoint chlorination is prevalent in drinking water and potable reuse water treatment. Breakpoint chlorination enhances the formation of N-nitrosamines through reactions that form nitrosating agents. The most recent study suggests that nitroxyl (HNO) can react with free chlorine (HOCl) to form the nitrosyl chloride (ClNO) nitrosating agent but has not experimentally verified its importance in breakpoint chlorination. This study first assessed the formation of N-nitrosamines from model N-chloro-alkylamine precursors when they were added to a mixture of HOCl and HNO-derived nitrosating agents generated by chlorinating hydroxyurea. Results demonstrated negligible N-nitrosamine formation. Instead, we observed that the interaction of NCl3 with NHCl2 (total Cl2/total N molar ratio = 2.4-3:1) produced an intermediate capable of nitrosating N-chloro-alkylamines to N-nitrosamines at yields 8-fold higher to those observed in NHCl2 treatment alone, within a very short timescale (<3 min). We examined the stoichiometry of the reaction of NCl3 with NHCl2 using a UV-spectrum-based approach. Nitrosyl chloride was proposed as the key intermediate, likely formed alongside the reformation of NHCl2. Further isotopic experiments, byproduct measurements, and kinetic modeling supported the hypotheses. Modeling indicated that the reaction of NCl3 with NHCl2 explained ∼75% of NDMA formation during breakpoint chlorination. Because NCl3 is mainly derived from the reaction of HOCl with NHCl2, controlling NHCl2 (e.g., with additional treatment) is critical for minimizing nitrosamine formation in waters where breakpoint chlorination occurs.

頁(從 - 到)15232-15242
期刊Environmental Science and Technology
出版狀態Published - 10 10月 2023


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