We fabricated a high-density array of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) with a diameter of 10 nm embedded in silicon germanium (SiGe0.3) to give a composite thin film for thermoelectric device applications. The SiNW array was first fabricated by biolate mask and neutral beam etching techniques. The SiNW array was then embedded in SiGe0.3 by thermal chemical vapor deposition. The cross-plane thermal conductivity of the SiNW-SiGe0.3 composite film with a thickness of 100 nm was 3.5 ± 0.3 W/mK in the temperature range of 300-350 K. Moreover, the temperature dependences of the in-plane electrical conductivity and in-plane Seebeck coefficient of the SiNW-SiGe0.3 composite were evaluated. The fabricated SiNW-SiGe0.3 composite film displayed a maximum power factor of 1 × 103 W/m K2 (a Seebeck coefficient of 4.8 × 103 μV/K and an electrical conductivity of 4.4 × 103 S/m) at 873 K. The present high-density SiNW array structure represents a new route to realize practical thermoelectric devices using mature Si processes without any rare metals.