This study aimed to compare the test results of anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibodies obtained using chemiluminescent immunoassay (CIA) and enzyme-linked immunosor-bent assay (ELISA), and investigate predictors of inconsistent results. This retrospective study included 502 patients who underwent CIA and ELISA to determine their anti-dsDNA antibody values within a year. We compared the diagnostic power for SLE, disease activity, and predictive power for lupus nephritis (LN). A multivariate analysis was performed to determine the predictors of inconsistencies. CIA and ELISA were moderately correlated in terms of their consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.571), and yielded comparably favorable results in terms of SLE diagnostic power and SLE disease activity. However, if the patient had LN, CIA displayed higher predictive power than ELISA (0.620 vs. 0.555, p = 0.026). Compared with the CIA/ELISA double-positive group, the inconsistent group had lower anti-C1q circulating immune complexes (CIC) antibody values (OR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.18–0.94, p = 0.036), and lower SLEDAI scores (≥4) (OR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.14–0.79, p = 0.013). Anti-dsDNA antibody detection with CIA exhibited higher predictability for diagnosing LN than did ELISA. In the event of inconsistencies between anti-dsDNA methods, SLE disease activity and CIC test values should be considered simultaneously.