Background:: Infant adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) collected from excised polydactyly fat tissue, which was surgical waste, could be cultured and expanded in vitro in this study. In addition, the collecting process would not cause pain in the host. In this study, the proliferation, reduction of senescence, anti-oxidative ability, and differentiation potential in the infant ADSCs were compared with those in the adult ADSCs harvested from thigh liposuction to determine the availability of infant ADSCs. Methods:: Proliferation was determined by detecting the fold changes in cell numbers and doubling time periods. Senescence was analyzed by investigating the age-related gene expression levels and the replicative stress. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) gene expression, adipogenic, neurogenic, osteogenic, and tenogenic differentiation were compared by RT-qPCR. The chondrogenic differentiation efficiency was also determined using RT-qPCR and immunohistochemical staining. Results:: The proliferation, SOD (SOD1, SOD2 and SOD3) gene expression, the stemness-related gene (c-MYC) and telomerase reverse transcriptase of the infant ADSCs at early passages were enhanced compared with those of the adults'. Cellular senescence related genes, including p16, p21 and p53, and replicative stress were reduced in the infant ADSCs. The adipogenic genes (PPARγ and LPL) and neurogenic genes (MAP2 and NEFH) of the infant ADSC differentiated cells were significantly higher than those of the adults’ while the expression of the osteogenic genes (OCN and RUNX) and tenogenic genes (TNC and COL3A1) of both demonstrated opposite results. The chondrogenic markers (SOX9, COL2 and COL10) were enhanced in the infant ADSC differentiated chondrogenic pellets, and the expression levels of SODs were decreased during the differentiation process. Conclusion:: Cultured infant ADSCs demonstrate less cellular senescence and replicative stress, higher proliferation rates, better antioxidant defense activity, and higher potential of chondrogenic, adipogenic and neurogenic differentiation.