Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is a leading cause of cancer mortality among women but unfortunately is usually not diagnosed until advanced stage. Early detection of EOC is of paramount importance to improve outcomes. Liquid biopsy of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is emerging as one of the promising biomarkers for early detection of solid tumors. However, discrepancies in terms of oncogenomics (i.e., different genetic defects detected) between the germline, primary tumor, and liquid biopsy are a serious concern and may adversely affect downstream cancer management. Here, we illustrate the potential and pitfalls of CTCs by presenting two patients of Stage I EOC. We successfully isolated and recovered CTCs by a silicon-based nanostructured microfluidics system, the automated Cell Reveal™. We examined the genomics of CTCs as well as the primary tumor and germline control (peripheral blood mononuclear cells) by whole exome sequencing. Different signatures were then investigated by comparisons of identified mutation loci distinguishing those that may only arise in the primary tumor or CTCs. A novel model is proposed to test if the highly variable allele frequencies, between primary tumor and CTCs results, are due to allele dropout in plural CTCs or tumor heterogeneity. This proof-of-principle study provides a strategy to elucidate the possible cause of genomic discrepancy between the germline, primary tumor, and CTCs, which is helpful for further large-scale use of such technology to be integrated into clinical management protocols.