Background: Gastric bypass (GB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) were found to achieve different remission rates in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The alteration in several gut hormones after bariatric surgery has been demonstrated to play a key role for T2DM remission. Nevertheless, amylin, one of the diabetes-associated peptides, so far has an undetermined position on T2DM remission after bariatric surgery. Methods: Sixty eligible patients with T2DM (GB, 30; SG, 30) were initially enrolled in the hospital-based randomized trial. Twenty patients (GB, 10; SG, 10) who met the inclusion criteria and agreed to undergo 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were recruited. The recruited subjects underwent anthropometric measurements, routine laboratory tests, and 75-g OGTT before and 1 year after bariatric surgery. Enzyme immunoassays for plasma amylin were analyzed. Results: All subjects that underwent GB and half of those who underwent SG achieved T2DM remission. Plasma amylin levels significantly decreased 60-90 min after OGTT in the GB group (p < 0.05) and 30-60 minutes after OGTT in the SG group (p < 0.05). Significantly decreased plasma amylin levels were observed at 30-90 minutes after OGTT in the noncomplete remitters of the GB group (p < 0.05). Plasma amylin levels initially increased (p < 0.05) within 30 minutes after OGTT and then decreased (p < 0.05) in the next 30-minute interval in the nonremitters of the SG group. Conclusion: Postoral glucose challenge amylin levels could be as one of the parameters to evaluate T2DM remission after bariatric surgery, especially in those after SG.