Purpose: Current clinical guidelines are unclear regarding the association of cardiovascular medication with the risk of acute exacerbation (AE) in patients with asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap (ACO). Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study by interrogating the claims database of Taipei Veterans General Hospital. Patients with coexistent fixed airflow limitation and asthma were enrolled as an ACO cohort between 2009 and 2017. Exposure to cardiovascular medications, including angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), non-selective beta-blockers, cardioselective beta-blockers, dihydropyridine (DHP) calcium channel blockers (CCBs), and non-DHP CCBs, in 3-month period each served as time-dependent covariates. Patients receiving a cardiovascular medication ≥ 28 cumulative daily doses were defined as respective cardiovascular medication users. Patients were followed up until December 31, 2018. The primary endpoint was severe AE, defined as hospitalization or emergency department visit for either asthma, COPD, or respiratory failure. The secondary outcome was moderate AE. Results: The final study cohort consisted of 582 ACO subjects, with a mean follow-up period of 2.98 years. After adjustment, ARB (hazard ratio [HR], 0.64, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.44–0.93, P = 0.019), cardioselective beta-blocker (HR, 0.29, 95% CI, 0.11–0.72, P = 0.008) and DHP CCB (HR, 0.66, 95% CI, 0.45–0.97, P = 0.035) therapies were associated with lower risks of severe AE. ARB (HR, 0.42, 95% CI, 0.30–0.62, P < 0.001) and DHP CCB (HR, 0.55, 95% CI, 0.38–0.80, P = 0.002) therapies were associated with lower risks of moderate AE. Cardioselective beta-blockers, ARBs, and DHP CCBs were associated with lower risks of severe AE in frequent exacerbators. ACEI, non-selective beta-blocker, or non-DHP CCB use did not change the risk of severe AE. Conclusions: ARB, cardioselective beta-blocker, and DHP CCB therapies may lower the risk of AE in patients with ACO.