Candidate Modifier Genes for the Penetrance of Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy

Hui Chen Cheng, Sheng Chu Chi, Chiao Ying Liang, Jenn Yah Yu, An Guor Wang*


研究成果: Article同行評審

5 引文 斯高帕斯(Scopus)


Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally transmitted disease caused by mitochondria DNA (mtDNA) mutation. It is characterized by acute and subacute visual loss predominantly affecting young men. The mtDNA mutation is transmitted to all maternal lineages. However, only approximately 50% of men and 10% of women harboring a pathogenic mtDNA mutation develop optic neuropathy, reflecting both the incomplete penetrance and its unexplained male prevalence, where over 80% of patients are male. Nuclear modifier genes have been presumed to affect the penetrance of LHON. With conventional genetic methods, prior studies have failed to solve the underlying pathogenesis. Whole exome sequencing (WES) is a new molecular technique for sequencing the protein-coding region of all genes in a whole genome. We performed WES from five families with 17 members. These samples were divided into the proband group (probands with acute onset of LHON, n = 7) and control group (carriers including mother and relative carriers with mtDNSA 11778 mutation, without clinical manifestation of LHON, n = 10). Through whole exome analysis, we found that many mitochondria related (MT-related) nuclear genes have high percentage of variants in either the proband group or control group. The MT genes with a difference over 0.3 of mutation percentage between the proband and control groups include AK4, NSUN4, RDH13, COQ3, and FAHD1. In addition, the pathway analysis revealed that these genes were associated with cofactor metabolism pathways. Family-based analysis showed that several candidate MT genes including METAP1D (c.41G > T), ACACB (c.1029del), ME3 (c.972G > C), NIPSNAP3B (c.280G > C, c.476C > G), and NSUN4 (c.4A > G) were involved in the penetrance of LHON. A GWAS (genome wide association study) was performed, which found that ADGRG5 (Chr16:575620A:G), POLE4 (Chr2:7495872T:G), ERMAP (Chr1:4283044A:G), PIGR (Chr1:2069357C:T;2069358G:A), CDC42BPB (Chr14:102949A:G), PROK1 (Chr1:1104562A:G), BCAN (Chr 1:1566582C:T), and NES (Chr1:1566698A:G,1566705T:C, 1566707T:C) may be involved. The incomplete penetrance and male prevalence are still the major unexplained issues in LHON. Through whole exome analysis, we found several MT genes with a high percentage of variants were involved in a family-based analysis. Pathway analysis suggested a difference in the mutation burden of MT genes underlining the biosynthesis and metabolism pathways. In addition, the GWAS analysis also revealed several candidate nuclear modifier genes. The new technology of WES contributes to provide a highly efficient candidate gene screening function in molecular genetics.

期刊International Journal Of Molecular Sciences
出版狀態Published - 10月 2022


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