(1) Destabilization of microtubule dynamics is a primary strategy to inhibit fast growing tumor cells. The low cytotoxic derivative of microtubule inhibitor D-24851, named BPR0C261 exhibits antitumor activity via oral administration. In this study, we investigated if BPR0C261 could modulate the radiation response of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells with or without p53 expression. (2) Different doses of BPR0C261 was used to treat human NSCLC A549 (p53+/+) cells and H1299 (p53−/−) cells. The cytotoxicity, radiosensitivity, cell cycle distribution, DNA damage, and protein expression were evaluated using an MTT assay, a colony formation assay, flow cytometry, a comet assay, and an immunoblotting analysis, respectively. (3) BPR0C261 showed a dose-dependent cytotoxicity on A549 cells and H1299 cells with IC50 at 0.38 μM and 0.86 μM, respectively. BPR0C261 also induced maximum G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis in both cell lines after 24 h of treatment with a dose-dependent manner. The colony formation analysis demonstrated that a combination of low concentration of BPR0C261 and X-rays caused a synergistic radiosensitizing effect on NSCLC cells. Additionally, we found that a low concentration of BPR0C261 was sufficient to induce DNA damage in these cells, and it increased the level of DNA damage induced by a fractionation radiation dose (2 Gy) of conventional radiotherapy. Furthermore, the p53 protein level of A549 cell line was upregulated by BPR0C261. On the other hand, the expression of PTEN tumor suppressor was found to be upregulated in H1299 cells but not in A549 cells under the same treatment. Although radiation could not induce PTEN in H1299 cells, a combination of low concentration of BPR0C261 and radiation could reverse this situation. (4) BPR0C261 exhibits specific anticancer effects on NSCLC cells by the enhancement of DNA damage and radiosensitivity with p53-dependent and p53-independent/PTEN-dependent manners. The combination of radiation and BPR0C261 may provide an important strategy for the improvement of radiotherapeutic treatment.