(1) Background: We used four-dimensional phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (4D PC-MRI) to evaluate the impact of an endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) on aortic dissection. (2) Methods: A total of 10 patients received 4D PC-MRI on a 1.5-T MR both before and after TEVAR. (3) Results: The aortas were repaired with either a GORE TAG Stent (Gore Medical; n = 7) or Zenith Dissection Endovascular Stent (Cook Medical; n = 3). TEVAR increased the forward flow volume of the true lumen (TL) (at the abdominal aorta, p = 0.047). TEVAR also reduced the regurgitant fraction in the TL at the descending aorta but increased it in the false lumen (FL). After TEVAR, the stroke distance increased in the TL (at descending and abdominal aorta, p = 0.018 and 0.015), indicating more effective blood transport per heartbeat. Post-stenting quantitative flow revealed that the reductions in stroke volume, backward flow volume, and absolute stroke volume were greater when covered stents were used than when bare stents were used in the FL of the descending aorta. Bare stents had a higher backward flow volume than covered stents did. (4) Conclusions: TEVAR increased the stroke volume in the TL and increased the regurgitant fraction in the FL in patients with aortic dissection.