The properties of amyloid fibrils, e.g., unique structural characteristics and superior biocompatibility, make them a promising vehicle for drug delivery. Here, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and whey protein isolate amyloid fibril (WPI-AF) were used to synthesize amyloid-based hybrid membranes as vehicles for the delivery of cationic and hydrophobic drugs (e.g., methylene blue (MB) and riboflavin (RF)). The CMC/WPI-AF membranes were synthesized via chemical crosslinking coupled with phase inversion. The zeta potential and scanning electron microscopy results revealed a negative charge and a pleated surface microstructure with a high content of WPI-AF. FTIR analysis showed that the CMC and WPI-AF were cross-linked via glutaraldehyde and the interacting forces between membrane and MB or RF was found to be electrostatic interaction and hydrogen bonding, respectively. Next, the in vitro drug release from membranes was monitored using UV-vis spectrophotometry. Additionally, two empirical models were used to analyze the drug release data and relevant rate constant and parameters were determined accordingly. Moreover, our results indicated that in vitro drug release rates depended on the drug–matrix interactions and transport mechanism, which could be controlled by altering the WPI-AF content in membrane. This research provides an excellent example of utilizing two-dimensional amyloid-based materials for drug delivery.