This research aims at studying the characteristics of ammonium adsorption onto hydrous bamboo biochar. Results showed that pH played the most important role in ammonium adsorption. High ionic strength enhanced the ammonium adsorption capacity of bamboo biochar. Ammonium adsorption was exothermic and spontaneous. FTIR results showed shift, disappearance, or appearance of specific functional groups on the bamboo biochar surface. Surface precipitation and complex formation contributed to the adsorption of ammonium onto hydrous bamboo biochar. Biochar can be an effective adsorbate for ammonium removal from water. Additionally, the formation of nitrogen containing precipitates on the biochar surface, potentially, leads to the in-situ synthesis of slow-release fertilizer.