Wireless networking has witnessed an explosion of interest from consumers in recent years for its applications in mobile and personal communications. As wireless networks become an integral component of the modern communication infrastructure, energy efficiency will be an important design consideration due to the limited battery life of mobile terminals. Power conservation techniques are commonly used in the hardware design of such systems. Since the network interface is a significant consumer of power, considerable research has been devoted to low-power design of the entire network protocol stack of wireless networks in an effort to enhance energy efficiency. This paper presents a comprehensive summary of recent work addressing energy efficient and low-power design within all layers of the wireless network protocol stack.