Objective Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are characterized by the destruction of elastin and collagen in the media and adventitia. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4, an adipokine known as CD26) influences cell signaling, cell-matrix interactions, and the regulation of the functional activity of incretins in metabolic and inflammatory disorders. Although the role of DPP-4 in AAA evolution has been demonstrated, the underlying mechanisms of DPP-4-regulated AAA development remains unknown. Methods Patients with AAA (n = 93) and healthy controls (CTL, n = 20) were recruited. Based on computed tomography image analyses, 93 patients were divided into two groups: those with a small AAA (SAA, aortic diameter <5 cm, n = 16) and those with a large AAA (LAA, aortic diameter ≥5 cm, n = 77). Plasma DPP-4, glucagon-like peptide-1 levels, and expression of CD26 on mononuclear cells were analyzed. In addition, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced THP-1 cells and angiotensin II-infused apolipoprotein EtmlUnc mice were used to explore the underlying mechanisms. Results The levels of DPP-4 (μU/μg) increased while active glucagon-like peptide-1 (pM) decreased in patients with AAA in a diameter-dependent manner [CTL: 2.3 ± 1.5 and 3.7 ± 2.4, respectively; SAA: 10.0 ± 10.9 and 2.1 ± 0.9, respectively; LAA: 32.2 ± 15.0 and 1.8 ± 1.1, respectively]. A significant decline in monocyte CD26 expression in patients with AAAs was observed relative to the CTL group. In vitro studies demonstrated that the inhibition of DPP-4 promoted PMA-induced monocytic cells differentiation, with increased CD68 and p21 expression, regulated by extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 activation. Furthermore, inhibition of DPP-4 significantly increased the phosphorylation of PYK2 and paxillin in PMA-induced THP-1 cell differentiation. Finally, the animal study was used to confirm the in vitro results that LAA mice showed marked macrophage infiltration in the adventitia with a decreased expression of DPP-4 as compared with SAA mice. Conclusions Increased plasma DPP-4 activity may correlate with aneurysmal development. CD26 on monocytes plays a critical role in cell differentiation, possibly mediated by extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2-p21 axis signaling pathways and cytoskeletal proteins reassembly. Exploring the role of DPP-4 further may yield potential therapeutic insights. Clinical Relevance Despite the multifunctional dipeptidyl peptidase-4 in pathophysiological process, its role in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) development is not well understood. We investigated the relative intensities of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 in association with AAA growth. Moreover, this study has shown that a decrease in CD26 expression of monocyte population in patients with AAA responds to monocyte-macrophage differentiation.