This paper presents a compact spectral detection system for common fluorescent and colorimetric assays. This system includes a gradient grating period guided-mode resonance (GGP-GMR) filter and charge-coupled device. In its current form, the GGP-GMR filter, which has a size of less than 2.5 mm, can achieve a spectral detection range of 500–700 nm. Through the direct measurement of the fluorescence emission, the proposed system was demonstrated to detect both the peak wavelength and its corresponding intensity. One fluorescent assay (albumin) and two colorimetric assays (albumin and creatinine) were performed to demonstrate the practical application of the proposed system for quantifying common liquid assays. The results of our system exhibited suitable agreement with those of a commercial spectrometer in terms of the assay sensitivity and limit of detection (LOD). With the proposed system, the fluorescent albumin, colorimetric albumin, and colorimetric creatinine assays achieved LODs of 40.99 and 398 and 25.49 mg/L, respectively. For a wide selection of biomolecules in point-of-care applications, the spectral detection range achieved by the GGP-GMR filter can be further extended and the simple and compact optical path configuration can be integrated with a lab-on-a-chip system.