Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia. Both the incidence and prevalence of AF are increasing, and the burden of AF is becoming huge. Many innovative advances have emerged in the past decade for the diagnosis and management of AF, including a new scoring system for the prediction of stroke and bleeding events, the introduction of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants and their special benefits in Asians, new rhythm- and rate-control concepts, optimal endpoints of rate control, upstream therapy, life-style modification to prevent AF recurrence, and new ablation techniques. The Taiwan Heart Rhythm Society and the Taiwan Society of Cardiology aimed to update the information and have appointed a jointed writing committee for new AF guidelines. The writing committee members comprehensively reviewed and summarized the literature, and completed the 2016 Guidelines of the Taiwan Heart Rhythm Society and the Taiwan Society of Cardiology for the Management of Atrial Fibrillation. This guideline presents the details of the updated recommendations, along with their background and rationale, focusing on data unique for Asians. The guidelines are not mandatory, and members of the writing committee fully realize that treatment of AF should be individualized. The physician's decision remains most important in AF management.