Wearable Sweat Band for Noninvasive Levodopa Monitoring

Li Chia Tai, Tiffany S. Liaw, Yuanjing Lin, Hnin Y.Y. Nyein, Mallika Bariya, Wenbo Ji, Mark Hettick, Chunsong Zhao, Jiangqi Zhao, Lei Hou, Zhen Yuan, Zhiyong Fan, Ali Javey*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

104 Scopus citations


Levodopa is the standard medication clinically prescribed to patients afflicted with Parkinson's disease. In particular, the monitoring and optimization of levodopa dosage are critical to mitigate the onset of undesired fluctuations in the patients' physical and emotional conditions such as speech function, motor behavior, and mood stability. The traditional approach to optimize levodopa dosage involves evaluating the subjects' motor function, which has many shortcomings due to its subjective and limited quantifiable nature. Here, we present a wearable sweat band on a nanodendritic platform that quantitatively monitors levodopa dynamics in the body. Both stationary iontophoretic induction and physical exercise are utilized as our methods of sweat extraction. The sweat band measures real-time pharmacokinetic profiles of levodopa to track the dynamic response of the drug metabolism. We demonstrated the sweat band's functionalities on multiple subjects with implications toward the systematic administering of levodopa and routine management of Parkinson's disease.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6346-6351
Number of pages6
JournalNano letters
Issue number9
StatePublished - 11 Sep 2019


  • dosage optimization
  • levodopa detection
  • noninvasive drug monitoring
  • Parkinson's disease
  • Wearable sweat sensor


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