Wearable Microsensor Array for Multiplexed Heavy Metal Monitoring of Body Fluids

Wei Gao, Hnin Y.Y. Nyein, Ziba Shahpar, Hossain M. Fahad, Kevin Chen, Sam Emaminejad, Yuji Gao, Li Chia Tai, Hiroki Ota, Eric Wu, James Bullock, Yuping Zeng, Der Hsien Lien, Ali Javey*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

257 Scopus citations


A flexible and wearable microsensor array is described for simultaneous multiplexed monitoring of heavy metals in human body fluids. Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Hg ions are chosen as target analytes for detection via electrochemical square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) on Au and Bi microelectrodes. The oxidation peaks of these metals are calibrated and compensated by incorporating a skin temperature sensor. High selectivity, repeatability, and flexibility of the sensor arrays are presented. Human sweat and urine samples are collected for heavy metal analysis, and measured results from the microsensors are validated through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Real-time on-body evaluation of heavy metal (e.g., zinc and copper) levels in sweat of human subjects by cycling is performed to examine the change in concentrations with time. This platform is anticipated to provide insightful information about an individual's health state such as heavy metal exposure and aid the related clinical investigations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)866-874
Number of pages9
JournalACS Sensors
Issue number7
StatePublished - 22 Jul 2016


  • flexible electronics
  • heavy metals monitoring
  • multiplexed sensing
  • sweat
  • temperature compensation
  • wearable biosensors


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