Wafer-Scale Functional Metasurfaces for Mid-Infrared Photonics and Biosensing

Aleksandrs Leitis, Ming Lun Tseng, Aurelian John-Herpin, Yuri S. Kivshar, Hatice Altug*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


Metasurfaces have emerged as a breakthrough platform for manipulating light at the nanoscale and enabling on-demand optical functionalities for next-generation biosensing, imaging, and light-generating photonic devices. However, translating this technology to practical applications requires low-cost and high-throughput fabrication methods. Due to the limited choice of materials with suitable optical properties, it is particularly challenging to produce metasurfaces for the technologically relevant mid-infrared spectral range. These constraints are overcome by realizing functional metasurfaces on almost completely transparent free-standing metal-oxide membranes. A versatile nanofabrication process is developed and implemented for highly efficient dielectric and plasmonic mid-infrared metasurfaces with wafer-scale and complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible manufacturing techniques. The advantages of this method are revealed by demonstrating highly uniform and functional metasurfaces, including high-Q structures enabling fine spectral selectivity, large-area metalenses with diffraction-limited focusing capabilities, and birefringent metasurfaces providing polarization control at record-high conversion efficiencies. Aluminum plasmonic devices and their integration into microfluidics for real-time and label-free mid-infrared biosensing of proteins and lipid vesicles are further demonstrated. The versatility of this approach and its compatibility with mass-production processes bring infrared metasurfaces markedly closer to commercial applications, such as thermal imaging, spectroscopy, and biosensing.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAdvanced Materials
StateE-pub ahead of print - 7 Sep 2021


  • biosensing
  • CMOS compatibility
  • deep ultraviolet lithography
  • free-standing membranes
  • high-throughput fabrication
  • metasurfaces
  • wavefront and polarization control


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