Wafer-level 3D integration technology

Steven J. Koester*, Albert M. Young, Roy R. Yu, Sampath Purushothaman, Kuan-Neng Chen, Douglas C. La Tulipe, Narender Rana, Leathen Shi, Matthew R. Wordeman, Edmund J. Sprogis

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

    154 Scopus citations


    An overview of wafer-level three-dimensional (3D) integration technology is provided. The basic reasoning for pursuing 3D integration is presented, followed by a description of the possible process variations and integration schemes, as well as the process technology elements needed to implement 3D integrated circuits. Detailed descriptions of two wafer-level integration schemes implemented at IBM are given, and the challenges of bringing 3D integration into a production environment are discussed.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)583-597
    Number of pages15
    JournalIBM Journal of Research and Development
    Issue number6
    StatePublished - 2008


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