Visualizing Ferroelectric Uniformity of Hf1- xZr xO2Films Using X-ray Mapping

Shui-Jui Chang, Chih Yu Teng, Yi Jan Lin, Tsung Mu Wu, Min Hung Lee, Bi Hsuan Lin, Mau Tsu Tang, Tai Sing Wu, Chenming Hu, Ethan Ying Tsan Tang, Yuan Chieh Tseng*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Hf1-xZrxO2 (HZO) is a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible ferroelectric (FE) material with considerable potential for negative capacitance field-effect transistors, ferroelectric memory, and capacitors. At present, however, the deployment of HZO in CMOS integrated circuit (IC) technologies has stalled due to issues related to FE uniformity. Spatially mapping the FE distribution is one approach to facilitating the optimization of HZO thin films. This paper presents a novel technique based on synchrotron X-ray nanobeam absorption spectroscopy capable of mapping the three main phases of HZO (i.e., orthorhombic (O), tetragonal (T), and monoclinic (M)). The practical value of the proposed methodology when implemented in conjunction with kinetic-nucleation modeling is demonstrated by our development of a T → O annealing (TOA) process to optimize HZO films. This process produces an HZO film with the largest polarization values (Ps = 64.5 μC cm-2 Pr = 35.17 μC cm-2) so far, which can be attributed to M-phase suppression followed by low-temperature annealing for the induction of a T → O phase transition.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)29212-29221
Number of pages10
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number24
StatePublished - 23 Jun 2021


  • ferroelectric
  • ferroelectric tunnel junction
  • HfZr O
  • negative capacitance field-effect transistor
  • X-ray absorption spectroscopy


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