Vesicoureteral Reflux in Children with Urinary Tract Infections in the Inpatient Setting in Taiwan

Jei Wen Chang, Chin Su Liu, Hsin Lin Tsai*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Purpose: Children with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) are at an increased risk of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs). Early detection and treatment of VUR are important to prevent renal function impairment. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine the epidemiology of VUR and to identify clinical factors associated with VUR in Taiwanese children with a first documented UTI. Patients and Methods: We conducted this nationwide retrospective study using the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2010. Children ≤6 years of age who were admitted and received intravenous antibiotics for a newly diagnosed UTI were included. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent factors associated with VUR. Results: Overall, 388 (10.2%) of the children had VUR. The median (interquartile range) age at diagnosis of VUR was 0.5 (0.3–1.3) years. Among the children with VUR, the age at first UTI and the age at diagnosis of VUR were significant lower in the males than in the females. Age ≤1 year at the first UTI (odds ratio (OR), 1.3; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0–1.7), renal agenesis and dysgenesis (OR, 4.1; 95% CI: 1.3–13.1), hydronephrosis (OR, 2.2; 95% CI: 1.7–2.9), duplex collecting system/ectopic kidney/ectopic ureter (OR, 13.0; 95% CI: 8.1–20.8), neuropathic bladder (OR, 4.7; 95% CI: 2.0–11.1) and spina bifida (OR, 5.9; 95% CI: 1.3–27.8) were independent factors for VUR. Conclusion: The children with VUR were more likely to have small kidneys and progression to end-stage renal disease. VUR was common in the children with a UTI and who were ≤1 year of age. Clinicians should arrange ultrasound to diagnose urinary tract anomalies. Infants with urinary tract anomalies, neuropathic bladder and spina bifida should receive further voiding cystourethro-graphy to diagnose VUR early, as this may help to prevent renal damage.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)299-307
Number of pages9
JournalClinical Epidemiology
StatePublished - 2022


  • congenital anomalies of the kidney and the urinary tract
  • risk factor
  • urinary tract infection
  • vesicoureteral reflux


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