Vacuum ultraviolet nonlinear metalens

Ming Lun Tseng, Michael Semmlinger, Ming Zhang, Catherine Arndt, Tzu Ting Huang, Jian Yang, Hsin Yu Kuo, Vin Cent Su, Mu Ku Chen, Cheng Hung Chu, Benjamin Cerjan, Din Ping Tsai*, Peter Nordlander, Naomi J. Halas

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

61 Scopus citations


Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light plays an essential role across science and technology, from molecular spectroscopy to nanolithography and biomedical procedures. Realizing nanoscale devices for VUV light generation and control is critical for next-generation VUV sources and systems, but the scarcity of low-loss VUV materials creates a substantial challenge. We demonstrate a metalens that both generates—by second-harmonic generation—and simultaneously focuses the generated VUV light. The metalens consists of 150-nm-thick zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoresonators that convert 394 nm (~3.15 eV) light into focused 197-nm (~6.29 eV) radiation, producing a spot 1.7 μm in diameter with a 21-fold power density enhancement as compared to the wavefront at the metalens surface. The reported metalens is ultracompact and phase-matching free, allowing substantial streamlining of VUV system design and facilitating more advanced applications. This work provides a useful platform for developing low-loss VUV components and increasing the accessibility of the VUV regime.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbereabn5644
JournalScience Advances
Issue number16
StatePublished - Apr 2022


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