Unstable approach: Intervention and prevention

Hsueh Yi Lai*, Basil Lee

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

1 Scopus citations


This research aims to investigate the occurrence of unstable approach from teamwork process via situation awareness, and shared-situation awareness. 9 pilots were recruited for a one-hour interview to identify critical themes. The results depicted that, under congested airspace derived from peak hour and unexpected weather, in order to consume excessive aircraft in the terminal area, ATCOs were prone to issue instructions which sacrificed aircraft's safety margins to squeeze the current air traffic flow. Therefore, aircraft may be too high or too fast during approach. For team process, pilots will actively identify ATCOs intention from TCAS, radio channel, and given instructions. As a result, they will be able to predict the coming steps and make preparation in advance. To conclude, in order to balance the needs of both ATCOs and pilots. ATCOs may have to consider not only separation but the appropriateness of vertical profile. Other than that, during the team process, critical and short information should be provided to make sure both parties comprehend each others intention mutually in seconds.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationTransdisciplinary Engineering
Subtitle of host publicationA Paradigm Shift - Proceedings of the 24th ISPE Inc. International Conference on Transdisciplinary Engineering, TE 2017
EditorsMargherita Peruzzini, Nel Wognum, Josip Stjepandic, Chun-Hsien Chen, Nel Wognum, Amy C. Trappey
PublisherIOS Press BV
Number of pages10
ISBN (Electronic)9781614994398
StatePublished - 2017
Event24th ISPE Inc. International Conference on Transdisciplinary Engineering, TE 2017 - Singapore, Singapore
Duration: 10 Jul 201714 Jul 2017

Publication series

NameAdvances in Transdisciplinary Engineering


Conference24th ISPE Inc. International Conference on Transdisciplinary Engineering, TE 2017


  • Shared mental model
  • Shared situation awareness
  • Situation awareness
  • System risks
  • Team process
  • Unstable approach


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