Unraveling the Structure-Property-Performance Relationships of Fused-Ring Nonfullerene Acceptors: Toward a C-Shaped ortho-Benzodipyrrole-Based Acceptor for Highly Efficient Organic Photovoltaics

Yung Jing Xue, Ze Yu Lai, Han Cheng Lu, Jun Cheng Hong, Chia Lin Tsai, Ching Li Huang, Kuo Hsiu Huang, Chia Fang Lu, Yu Ying Lai, Chain Shu Hsu, Jhih Min Lin, Je Wei Chang, Su Ying Chien, Gene Hsiang Lee, U. Ser Jeng*, Yen Ju Cheng*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations

Abstract

The high-performance Y6-based nonfullerene acceptors (NFAs) feature a C-shaped A-DA’D-A-type molecular architecture with a central electron-deficient thiadiazole (Tz) A’ unit. In this work, we designed and synthesized a new A-D-A-type NFA, termed CB16, having a C-shaped ortho-benzodipyrrole-based skeleton of Y6 but with the Tz unit eliminated. When processed with nonhalogenated xylene without using any additives, the binary PM6:CB16 devices display a remarkable power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 18.32% with a high open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.92 V, surpassing the performance of the corresponding Y6-based devices. In contrast, similarly synthesized SB16, featuring an S-shaped para-benzodipyrrole-based skeleton, yields a low PCE of 0.15% due to the strong side-chain aggregation of SB16. The C-shaped A-DNBND-A skeleton in CB16 and the Y6-series NFAs constitutes the essential structural foundation for achieving exceptional device performance. The central Tz moiety or other A’ units can be employed to finely adjust intermolecular interactions. The single-crystal X-ray structure reveals that ortho-benzodipyrrole-embedded A-DNBND-A plays an important role in the formation of a 3D elliptical network packing for efficient charge transport. Solution structures of the PM6:NFAs detected by small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SWAXS) indicate that removing the Tz unit in the C-shaped skeleton could reduce the self-packing of CB16, thereby enhancing the complexing and networking with PM6 in the spin-coating solution and the subsequent device film. Elucidating the structure-property-performance relationships of A-DA’D-A-type NFAs in this work paves the way for the future development of structurally simplified A-D-A-type NFAs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)833-848
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of the American Chemical Society
Volume146
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 10 Jan 2024

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