Purpose: To investigate breast cancer treatment of patients enrolled under traditional Medicaid categories versus those in the Breast and Cervical Cancer Prevention and Treatment Act (BCCPTA) in Georgia. Methods: Georgia Comprehensive Cancer Registry linked to Medicaid enrollment files were used to identify 2,048 enrollees with a primary cancer of the breast, of whom 1,046 were enrolled in BCCPTA, 674 were disabled, and 328 were in other Medicaid eligibility groups. Logistic regressions were used to estimate factors associated with the odds of receiving lumpectomy, mastectomy, or other surgery in addition to any drug regimen (hormonal or chemotherapy) and radiation. Results: Women in BCCPTA were more likely to receive any treatment (odds ratio [OR] = 4.71; 95% CI, 2.48 to 8.96), any drug regimen (OR = 3.58; 95% CI, 2.32 to 5.51), any radiation (OR = 1.61; 95% CI, 1.15to 2.24), and any definitive surgery (OR = 2.52; 95% CI, 1.74 to 3.66) than the "other" eligibility group after controlling for covariates. There were no significant differences by eligibility group in the receipt of a lumpectomy versus a mastectomy. However, women in BCCPTA were more likely to receive more adjuvant follow-up after a mastectomy. Conclusion: The BCCPTA program in Georgia appears to create a quicker pathway for low-income, previously uninsured women with breast cancer to access services and, in turn, receive more treatment than women enrolled in the other, more traditional Medicaid eligibility groups. Yet the overall rate of adjuvant therapy, whether radiation, hormonal, or chemotherapy, appears to fall short of national criteria. This deserves attention in Georgia and, most likely, Medicaid programs in other states as well.