Transcription and Beyond: Delineating FOXG1 Function in Cortical Development and Disorders

Pei Shan Hou, Darren hAilín, Tanja Vogel, Carina Hanashima*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


Forkhead Box G1 (FOXG1) is a member of the Forkhead family of genes with non-redundant roles in brain development, where alteration of this gene’s expression significantly affects the formation and function of the mammalian cerebral cortex. FOXG1 haploinsufficiency in humans is associated with prominent differences in brain size and impaired intellectual development noticeable in early childhood, while homozygous mutations are typically fatal. As such, FOXG1 has been implicated in a wide spectrum of congenital brain disorders, including the congenital variant of Rett syndrome, infantile spasms, microcephaly, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia. Recent technological advances have yielded greater insight into phenotypic variations observed in FOXG1 syndrome, molecular mechanisms underlying pathogenesis of the disease, and multifaceted roles of FOXG1 expression. In this review, we explore the emerging mechanisms of FOXG1 in a range of transcriptional to posttranscriptional events in order to evolve our current view of how a single transcription factor governs the assembly of an elaborate cortical circuit responsible for higher cognitive functions and neurological disorders.

Original languageEnglish
Article number35
JournalFrontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
StatePublished - 25 Feb 2020


  • FOXG1
  • FOXG1 syndrome
  • cellular reprogramming
  • cortical development
  • cortical organoid
  • posttranscriptional regulation
  • transcription factor


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