The optical research progress of nanophosphors composed of transition elements in the fourth period of near-infrared windows I and II for deep-tissue theranostics

Ming Hsien Chan, Wen Tse Huang, Kuan Chun Chen, Ting Yi Su, Yung Chieh Chan, Michael Hsiao*, Ru Shi Liu*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations

Abstract

Research in the field of nano-optics is advancing by leaps and bounds, among which near-infrared (NIR) light optics have attracted much attention. NIR light has a longer wavelength than visible light, such that it can avoid shielding caused by biological tissues. This advantage has driven its importance and practicality in human treatment applications and has attracted significant attention from researchers in academia and industry. In the broad spectrum of infrared light wavelengths, the most noticeable ones are the NIR biological window I of 700-900 nm and window II of 1000-1700 nm. Luminescent materials can effectively cover the NIR biological window with different doping strategies. These doped elements are mostly transition elements with multielectron orbitals. Several nanomaterials based on narrow-spectrum lanthanides have been developed to correspond to biological applications of different wavelengths. However, this review explicitly introduces the absorption and reflection/luminescence interactions between NIR light and biological tissues independently. Unlike the adjustment of the wavelength of the lanthanide series, this review analyzes the NIR optical properties of the fourth-period element ions in transition elements (such as Cr3+ and Ni2+). These elements have a broadband wavelength of NIR light emission and higher quantum efficiency, corresponding to the absorption and emission spectrum and photobiological absorption of different NIR windows for therapeutic diagnosis. Finally, this review lists and explores other broadband NIR phosphors and has tried to discover the possibility of non-invasive precision medicine in the future.

Original languageEnglish
JournalNanoscale
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2022

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