The influence of emotion on keyboard typing: An experimental study using auditory stimuli

Po Ming Lee, Wei Hsuan Tsui, Tzu-Chien Hsiao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Scopus citations


In recent years, a novel approach for emotion recognition has been reported, which is by keystroke dynamics. The advantages of using this approach are that the data used is rather non-intrusive and easy to obtain. However, there were only limited investigations about the phenomenon itself in previous studies. Hence, this study aimed to examine the source of variance in keyboard typing patterns caused by emotions. A controlled experiment to collect subjects' keystroke data in different emotional states induced by International Affective Digitized Sounds (IADS) was conducted. Two-way Valence (3) x Arousal (3) ANOVAs was used to examine the collected dataset. The results of the experiment indicate that the effect of arousal is significant in keystroke duration (p > .05), keystroke latency (p > .01), but not in the accuracy rate of keyboard typing. The size of the emotional effect is small, compared to the individual variability. Our findings support the conclusion that the keystroke duration andlatency are influenced by arousal. The finding about the size of the effect suggests that the accuracy rate of emotion recognition technology could be further improved if personalized models are utilized. Notably, the experiment was conducted using standard instruments and hence is expected to be highly reproducible.

Original languageEnglish
Article number0129056
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number6
StatePublished - 11 Jun 2015


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