Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive respiratory illness. Questionnaires such as modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea scale and COPD assessment test (CAT) are useful for COPD condition and life quality assessment. These questionnaires reflect how respiratory disorder affects daily life. Breathing and autonomic nervous system (ANS) usually regulate each other. Few studies discussed the ANS activity and daily life quality in patients with COPD. Therefore, this study aimed to find the relationship between daily life quality assessed by mMRC or CAT and ANS assessed by a novel method, instantaneous pulse rate variability (iPRV), a method indicating not only the ANS activity but also the peripheral response. The result showed that the change in mMRC and the change in low frequency power to high frequency power ratio, which usually represents the sympathetic activity in conventional heart rate variability analysis, had significant correlation (r = 0.63; p<0.05). The change in CAT and the change in high frequency power (regulated by vagal nervous and respiratory system) or very high frequency power (new frequency band can be indicated in iPRV spectrum) had significant negative correlation (r =-0.64 and-0.55, respectively; p<0.05 for both). This study showed the change in iPRV indices when the condition of COPD was improvement or exacerbation. This study presents a possible way to show how cardiovascular activity affects daily life quality in patients with COPD. Increase in LF or decrease in HF and VHF would cause poorer quality of daily life in patients with COPD. The result can also be a reference for patients with COPD to choose the breathing type to adjust rehabilitation and therapy program for ANS regulation to indicate or improve their daily life quality.