The Impact of Cage and End plate-Related Factors on Cage Subsidence in Oblique Lateral Interbody Fusion

Kuan Jung Chen, Yen Chun Huang, Hsi Hsien Lin, Po Hsin Chou, Shih-Tien Wang, Chien Yuan Wang, Ming Chau Chang, Yu Cheng Yao*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Objectives: To identify cage and end plate factors of cage subsidence (CS) in patients who underwent oblique lateral interbody fusion (OLIF) and their association with patient-reported outcomes. Methods: Sixty-one patients (43 women and 18 men), with a total of 69 segments (138 end plates) which underwent OLIF at a single academic institution between November 2018 and November 2020, were included. All the end plates were separated into CS and nonsubsidence groups. Cage-related parameters (cage height, cage width, cage insertion level, and cage position) and end plate-related parameters (position of end plate, Hounsfield unit value of the vertebra, end plate concave angle [ECA], end plate injury, and angular mismatch measured with cage/end plate angle [C/EA]) were compared and analyzed using logistic regression to predict CS. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to determine the cutoff points of the parameters. Results: Postoperative CS was identified in 50 of the 138 end plates (36.2%). The CS group had significantly lower mean Hounsfield unit values of the vertebra, higher rate of end plate injury, lower ECA, and higher C/EA than the nonsubsidence group. ECA and C/EA were identified as independent risk factors for developing CS. The optimal cutoff points for ECA and C/EA were 176.9° and 5.4°, respectively. Conclusions: An ECA greater than 176.9° and a cage/end plate angular mismatch greater than 5.4° were found to be independent risk factors of postoperative CS after the OLIF procedure. These findings aid in preoperative decision-making and intraoperative technical guidance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e629-e638
JournalWorld Neurosurgery
StatePublished - May 2023


  • Angular mismatch
  • Cage subsidence
  • Lumbar degenerative disease
  • Oblique lateral interbody fusion
  • Risk factors
  • Vertebral end plate


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