The immunization site of cytokine-secreting tumor cell vaccines influences the trafficking of tumor-specific T lymphocytes and antitumor efficacy against regional tumors

Chun Jung Chang, Kuo Feng Tai, Steve Roffler, Lih Hwa Hwang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations

Abstract

Tumor cells engineered to secrete cytokines, referred to as tumor cell vaccines, can often generate systemic antitumor immunity and, in many cases, cause tumor regression. We compared the efficacy of s.c. immunization or intrahepatic immunization of GM-CSF-expressing tumor cell vaccines on the growth of s.c. or orthotopic liver tumors. A chemically transformed hepatic epithelial cell line, GP7TB, derived from Fischer 344 rats, was used to generate tumor models and tumor cell vaccines. Our results demonstrated that two s.c. injections of an irradiated tumor cell vaccine significantly controlled the growth of s.c. tumors, but was completely ineffective against orthotopic liver tumors. Effector cell infiltration in liver tumors was markedly reduced compared with s.c. tumors. Enhanced apoptosis of some effector cells was observed in the liver tumors compared with the s.c. tumors. Furthermore, the T cells induced by s.c. immunization preferentially migrated to s.c. tumor sites, as demonstrated by adoptive transfer experiments. In contrast, intrahepatic immunization, using parental tumor cells admixed with adenoviruses carrying the GM-CSF gene, yielded significantly better therapeutic effects on the liver tumors than on the s.c. tumors. Adoptive transfer experiments further confirmed that the T cells induced by liver immunization preferentially migrated to the liver tumor sites. Our results demonstrate that distinct T cell populations are induced by different immunization routes. Thus, the homing behavior of T cells depends on the route of immunization and is an important factor determining the efficacy of immunotherapy for regional tumors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6025-6032
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Immunology
Volume173
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - 15 Nov 2004

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