The evolving practice of hybrid natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) for rectal cancer

Chien Chih Chen, Yi Ling Lai, Jeng Kae Jiang, Chun Ho Chu, I. Ping Huang, Wei Shone Chen, Andy Yi Ming Cheng, Shung Haur Yang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Background: Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) has emerged as the area of focus in laparoscopic surgery. Hybrid NOTES (hNOTES) has some potential advantages for treating rectal cancer. Methods: Between May 2013 and November 2013, a total of 20 patients (11 males) who received hNOTES at two institutes participating in the study were documented and reviewed. Surgical outcomes, including complications and pathological outcomes, were analyzed. Results: The mean age of patients was 57.8 ± 10.1 years (range 34–78). Eleven patients received preoperative neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, with the mean distance between tumor and anal verge being 5.9 ± 1.7 cm (mean 2–8). The mean estimated intraoperative blood loss was 68 ± 106 ml (range 30–500), with one case converted to open procedure due to uncontrolled bleeding. Eight cases underwent simultaneous two-team approach. The mean operative time was 200.8 ± 47.7 min (range 110–285). Circular stapling was performed for 14 cases (70 %) as the anastomosis, and protective stoma performed for 17 cases (85 %). The overall postoperative complication rate was 25 %. Two cases (10 %) develop pelvic abscess due to leakage, which were controlled by medical treatments. The distal and circumferential margins were all free of tumor cells, and the mean distal margin length was 2.4 ± 0.98 cm (range 0.5–4). Conclusions: Hybrid NOTES for rectal cancer is safe and feasible. Rapid experience-building accelerates its evolution, as reflected here by the high stapling rate and the idea of a two-team approach. It has the potential to become an option of treating rectal cancers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)119-126
Number of pages8
JournalSurgical Endoscopy and Other Interventional Techniques
Issue number1
StatePublished - 14 Jan 2015


  • Laparoscopic surgery
  • Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES)
  • Rectal cancer
  • Transanal TME


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