The evolution and structure of snake venom phosphodiesterase (svPDE) highlight its importance in venom actions

Cheng Tsung Pan, Chien Chu Lin, I. Jin Lin, Kun Yi Chien, Yeong Shin Lin*, Hsiao Han Chang*, Wen Guey Wu*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

For decades, studies of snake venoms focused on the venom-ome-specific toxins (VSTs). VSTs are dominant soluble proteins believed to contribute to the main venomous effects and emerged into gene clusters for fast adaptation and diversification of snake venoms. However, the conserved minor venom components, such as snake venom phosphodiesterase (svPDE), remain largely unexplored. Here, we focus on svPDE by genomic and transcriptomic analysis across snake clades and demonstrate that soluble svPDE is co-opted from the ancestral membrane-attached ENPP3 (ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 3) gene by replacing the original 5′ exon with the exon encoding a signal peptide. Notably, the exons, promoters, and transcription/ translation starts have been replaced multiple times during snake evolution, suggesting the evolutionary necessity of svPDE. The structural and biochemical analyses also show that svPDE shares the similar functions with ENPP family, suggesting its perturbation to the purinergic signaling and insulin transduction in venomous effects.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere83966
JournaleLife
Volume12
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2023

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