The CO/NOx emissions of swirled, strongly pulsed jet diffusion flames

Ying-Hao Liao*, James C. Hermanson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


The CO and NOx exhaust emissions of swirled, strongly pulsed, turbulent jet diffusion flames were studied experimentally in a coflow swirl combustor. Measurements of emissions were performed on the combustor centerline using standard emission analyzers combined with an aspirated sampling probe located downstream of the visible flame tip. The highest levels of CO emissions are generally found for compact, isolated flame puffs, which is consistent with the quenching due to rapid dilution with excess air. The imposition of swirl generally results in a decrease in CO levels by up to a factor of 2.5, suggesting more rapid and compete fuel/air mixing by imposing swirl in the coflow stream. The levels of NO emissions for most cases are generally below the steady-flame value. The NO levels become comparable to the steady-flame value for sufficiently short jet-off times. The swirled coflow air can, in some cases, increase the NO emissions due to a longer combustion residence time due to the flow recirculation within the swirl-induced recirculation zone. Scaling relations, when taking into account the impact of air dilution over an injection cycle on the flame length, reveal a strong correlation between the CO emissions and the global residence time. However, the NO emissions do not successfully correlate with the global residence time. For some specific cases, a compact flame with a simultaneous decrease in both CO and NO emissions compared to the steady flames was observed. ©

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)849-868
Number of pages20
JournalCombustion science and technology
Issue number7
StatePublished - 3 Jul 2014


  • CO emissions
  • Diffusion flame
  • NO emissions
  • Pulsed flame
  • Swirled flame


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