Purpose: Numerous biomarkers of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) are associated with renal prognosis but head-to-head comparisons are lacking. This study aimed to examine the association of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1 (sTNFR1), fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21), endocan, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP), and renal outcomes of patients with or without clinical signs of DKD. Methods: A total of 312 patients were enrolled in a prospective observational study that excluded individuals with estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2. Composite renal outcomes included either a > 30% decline in eGFR and worsening albuminuria or both from consecutive tests of blood/urine during a 3.5-year follow-up period. Results: Higher sTNFR1 and FGF-21, rather than endocan and NT-pro-BNP, levels were associated with renal outcomes but the significance was lost after adjusting for confounders. However, sTNFR1 levels ≥ 9.79 pg/dL or FGF-21 levels ≥ 1.40 pg/dL were associated with renal outcomes after adjusting for the confounders (hazard ration [HR] 2.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.36–5.60, p = 0.005 for sTNFR1 level; HR 1.95, 95% CI 1.03–3.69, p = 0.03 for FGF-21 level). The combination of both levels exhibited even better association with renal outcomes than did either one alone (adjusted HR 4.45, 95% CI 1.86–10.65, p = 0.001). The results were consistent among patients with preserved renal function and normoalbuminuria. Conclusion: Both sTNFR1 and FGF-21 levels were associated with renal outcomes of in patients with type 2 diabetes, and the combination of the abovementioned markers exhibits better predictability.
- Fibroblast growth factor 21
- Renal outcomes
- Soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1
- Type 2 diabetes mellitus