Waveform lidar provides both geometric and waveform properties from the entire returned signals. The waveform analysis is an important process to extract the attributes of the reflecting surface from the waveform. The proposed method analyzes the geospatial relationship between the return signals by combining the sequential waves. The idea of this method is to analyze the waveform parameters from sequential waves. Since the adjacent return signals are geospatially correlated, they have similar waveform properties that can be used to validate the correctness of the extracted waveform parameters. The proposed method includes three major steps: (1) single-waveform processing for the initial echo detection; (2) multi-waveform processing using waveform alignment and stacking; (3) verification of the enhanced weak return. The experimental waveform lidar data were acquired using Leica ALS60, Optech Pegasus, and Riegl Q680i. The experimental result indicates that the proposed method successfully extracts the weak returns while considering the geospatial relationships. The correctness and increasing rate of the extracted ground points are related to the vegetated coverage such as the complexity and density. The correctness is above 76% in this study. Because the nearest waveform has a higher correlation, the increase in distance of adjacent waveforms will reduce the correctness of the enhanced weak return.
- Gaussian decomposition
- Waveform alignment and stacking
- Waveform lidar
- Weak return