Temporal Profile of Blood-Brain Barrier Breakdown in Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome

Soohyun Cho, Yu Hsiang Ling, Mi Ji Lee, Shih Pin Chen, Jong Ling Fuh, Jiing Feng Lirng, Jihoon Cha, Yen Feng Wang, Shuu Jiun Wang*, Chin Sang Chung

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background and Purpose - Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) has a unique temporal course of vasoconstriction. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown is part of the pathophysiology of RCVS, but its temporal course is unknown. We aimed to investigate the temporal profile of BBB breakdown and relevant clinical profiles in a large sample size. Methods - In this prospective observatory bicenter study, patients who underwent contrast-enhanced fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging within 2 months from onset were included. The presence and extent of BBB breakdown were evaluated using contrast-enhanced fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging. Contrast-enhanced fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging data were analyzed using a semiautomated segmentation technique to quantitatively measure the area of Gadolinium leakage into cerebrospinal fluid space. The univariable and multivariable linear regressions were performed to investigate the independent effect of time from onset with adjustment for other covariates. Results - In the 186 patients with angiogram-proven RCVS included in this analysis, BBB breakdown was observed in 52.6%, 56.8%, 30.3%, 40.0%, and 23.8% in the first, second, third, fourth, and ≥fifth week after onset. The extent of BBB breakdown peaked at first and second week, whereas the peak of vasoconstriction was observed at the third week after onset. Multivariable analysis showed the second week from onset (β, 3.35 [95% CI, 0.07-6.64]; P=0.046) and blood pressure surge (β, 3.84 [95% CI, 1.75-5.92]; P<0.001) were independently associated with a greater extent of BBB breakdown. A synergistic effect of time from onset and blood pressure surge was found (P for interaction=0.006). Conclusions - Frequency and extent of BBB breakdown are more prominent during the early stage in patients with RCVS, with an earlier peak than that of vasoconstriction. The temporal course of BBB breakdown may provide a pathophysiologic background of the temporal course of neurological complications of RCVS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1451-1457
Number of pages7
JournalStroke
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2020

Keywords

  • blood pressure
  • blood-brain barrier
  • cerebral arterial diseases
  • magnetic resonance imaging
  • vasoconstriction

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