Technology and Applications of Micro-LEDs: Their Characteristics, Fabrication, Advancement, and Challenges

Tzu Yi Lee, Li Yin Chen*, Yu Yun Lo, Sujith Sudheendran Swayamprabha, Amit Kumar, Yu Ming Huang, Shih Chen Chen, Hsiao Wen Zan, Fang Chung Chen*, Ray Hua Horng*, Hao Chung Kuo*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


Micro-light-emitting diodes (μLEDs) are getting much attention in display industry because of their outstanding optical and electrical characteristics. μLEDs have several advantages over liquid crystal displays (LCDs) and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). μLEDs are showing long lifetimes, high reliability, high power efficiencies, high brightness, and fast response times with tiny pixels. However, for commercial usage, the high production cost and low external quantum efficiency (EQE) are the major hurdles. In this review, we briefly discuss the breakthroughs in μLED technology, fabrication methods, optical/electrical characteristics, and challenges for display applications. In addition, the development of monolithic μLEDs and general device characteristics combined with various quantum dot patterning processes are systematically discussed. Potential solutions to address these challenges are also presented case by case.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2905-2930
Number of pages26
JournalACS Photonics
Issue number9
StatePublished - 21 Sep 2022


  • Color-conversion method
  • Full-color display
  • Monolithic μLEDs
  • Nanostructure
  • Visible light communication
  • μLED


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