TEAD4 as an Oncogene and a Mitochondrial Modulator

Sheng Chieh Hsu, Ching Yu Lin, Yen Yi Lin, Colin C. Collins, Chia Lin Chen*, Hsing Jien Kung

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


TEAD4 (TEA Domain Transcription Factor 4) is well recognized as the DNA-anchor protein of YAP transcription complex, which is modulated by Hippo, a highly conserved pathway in Metazoa that controls organ size through regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis. To acquire full transcriptional activity, TEAD4 requires co-activator, YAP (Yes-associated protein) or its homolog TAZ (transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif) the signaling hub that relays the extracellular stimuli to the transcription of target genes. Growing evidence suggests that TEAD4 also exerts its function in a YAP-independent manner through other signal pathways. Although TEAD4 plays an essential role in determining that differentiation fate of the blastocyst, it also promotes tumorigenesis by enhancing metastasis, cancer stemness, and drug resistance. Upregulation of TEAD4 has been reported in several cancers, including colon cancer, gastric cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer and serves as a valuable prognostic marker. Recent studies show that TEAD4, but not other members of the TEAD family, engages in regulating mitochondrial dynamics and cell metabolism by modulating the expression of mitochondrial- and nuclear-encoded electron transport chain genes. TEAD4’s functions including oncogenic activities are tightly controlled by its subcellular localization. As a predominantly nuclear protein, its cytoplasmic translocation is triggered by several signals, such as osmotic stress, cell confluency, and arginine availability. Intriguingly, TEAD4 is also localized in mitochondria, although the translocation mechanism remains unclear. In this report, we describe the current understanding of TEAD4 as an oncogene, epigenetic regulator and mitochondrial modulator. The contributing mechanisms will be discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number890419
JournalFrontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
StatePublished - 5 May 2022


  • cancer
  • epigenetics
  • mitochondria
  • oxphos
  • Tead4


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