Synthesis of Upper-Rim Sulfanylpropyl- and p-Methoxyphenylazo-Substituted Calix[4]arenes as Chromogenic Sensors for Hg2+ and Ag+ Ions

Jia De Lian, Hsin Yu Hu, Yi Han Lin, Putikam Raghunath, Ming Chang Lin, Wen Sheng Chung*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

A series of calix[4]arenes with upper-rim sulfanylpropyl and p-methoxyphenylazo groups (compounds 8-10) were synthesized and found to be effective chromogenic sensors for selectively detecting Hg2+, Hg+, and Ag+ ions among 18 screened metal perchlorates. In comparison to previously reported diallyl- and dithioacetoxypropyl-substituted calix[4]arenes (5, 6, 14, 15, and 16) and the newly synthesized compound 7, the distal (5,17)-disulfanylpropyl-substituted di-p-methoxyphenylazocalix[4]arene 9 demonstrated superior performance with a limit of detection of 0.028 μM for Hg2+ ions in a chloroform/methanol (v/v = 399/1) cosolvent. Job’s plot revealed 1:1 binding stoichiometry for all these upper-rim sulfanylpropyl- and p-methoxyphenylazo-substituted calix[4]arenes 8-10 with Hg2+ ions, and Benesi-Hildebrand plots from ultraviolet/visible (UV-vis) titration spectra were used for the determination of their association constants. Our findings indicated that the distal orientation of two p-methoxyphenylazo and two sulfanylpropyl groups in calix[4]arenes 8-10 is more favorable for binding Hg2+ ions than the proximal (5,11-) orientation; moreover, the adjacent sulfanylpropyl groups exhibited superior coordination as ligands compared to the allyl and thioacetoxypropyl groups. Notably, compounds 8-10 displayed a comparable trend in their association with Ag+ ions, albeit with 1 order of magnitude lower binding constants and a distinct binding mode compared to Hg2+ ions. UV-vis spectroscopy, Job's plots, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance titration studies are presented and discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)14292-14302
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Organic Chemistry
Volume88
Issue number20
DOIs
StatePublished - 20 Oct 2023

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