Study on the performance of thin-film VCSELs on composite metal substrate

William Anderson Lee Sanchez, Shreekant Sinha, Po Yu Wang, Ray Hua Horng*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Thin film p-side up vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with 940 nm wavelength on a composite metal (Copper/Invar/Copper; CIC) substrate has been demonstrated by twice-bonding transfer and substrate removing techniques. The CIC substrate is a sandwich structure with a 10 µm thick Copper (Cu) layer/30 µm thick Invar layer/10 µm thick Cu layer. The Invar layer was composed of Iron (Fe) and Nickel (Ni) with a proportion of 70:30. The thermal expansion coefficient of the composite CIC metal can match that of the GaAs substrate. It results that the VCSEL layers can be successfully transferred to CIC metal substrate without cracking. At 1 mA current, the top-emitting VCSEL/GaAs and thin-film VCSEL/CIC had a voltage of 1.39 and 1.37 V, respectively. The optical output powers of VCSEL/GaAs and VCSEL/CIC were 21.91 and 24.40 mW, respectively. The 50 µm thick CIC substrate can play a good heat dissipation function, which results in improving the electrical and optical characteristics of thin film VCSELs/CIC. The VCSEL/CIC exhibited a superior thermal management capability as compared with VCSEL/GaAs. The obtained data suggested that VCSELs on a composite metal substrate not only affected significantly the characteristics of thin film VCSEL, but also improved considerably the device thermal performance. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish
Article number32
JournalFrontiers of Optoelectronics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2023


  • CIC substrate
  • Composite metal
  • Electrical properties
  • GaAs substrate
  • Heat dissipation
  • Thin film
  • Twice-bonding transfer
  • VCSELs


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