Study of electromigration in thin tin film using edge displacement method

Hsin-Chieh Yu, S. H. Liu, Chih Chen*

*Corresponding author for this work

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16 Scopus citations


Threshold current density and other electromigration parameters of pure Sn films were measured using edge displacement method. Sn film with a thickness of 5000 Å was evaporated on a 1200-Å -thick Ti film on a Si substrate. Electromigration behavior was investigated under the current densities of 2.5× 104 -1.5× 105 A cm2 at room temperature (RT 27-32 °C), 50, 75, and 100 °C. Both needle-type and hillock-type whiskers grew in the anode end when the films were stressed at RT and 50 °C, but only hillock-type whiskers were observed when they were stressed at 75 and 100 °C. The electromigration rate increased linearly with the applied current density for the four stressing temperatures. The threshold current density (Jc) was measured to be 1.93× 104, 9.65× 103, 9.57× 103, and 7.93× 103 A cm2 for RT, 50, 75, and 100 °C, respectively. The measured activation energy was 0.32 eV. In addition, the measured critical length of the Sn film was 18 μm at RT and the products of D Z* were 1.95× 10-10, 4.84× 10-10, 1.27× 10-9, and 1.99× 10-9 cm2 s for RT, 50, 75, and 100 °C, respectively. These results are fundamental to electromigration in Pb-free solders, since most of their matrices consist of almost pure Sn.

Original languageEnglish
Article number013540
JournalJournal of Applied Physics
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Jul 2005


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