Strong Read and Write Interference Induced by Breakdown Failure in Crossbar Arrays

Che Chia Chang, Hsin Hui Huang, Boris Hudec, Ming Hung Wu, Chih Cheng Chang, Po Tsun Liu, Tuo-Hung Hou*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Cell-to-cell interference due to the sneak current is a known and important issue in high-density 4F2 crossbar arrays. However, the interference between normal cells and high-leakage breakdown (BD) cells is rarely discussed. We show that such interference degrades the array read and write yields dramatically based on experiments and simulation. A rule-based analytical model for BD interference is developed by leveraging the quantitative understanding of the different interference modes and their equivalent circuits. This model achieves equivalent accuracy but is at least 100 times faster than the SPICE circuit simulator. It is used in the Monte Carlo simulation for providing sensible statistics on the spatial dependence of interference. The results show that merely 3% of BD cells result in zero array yield for a crossbar array size larger than $128\times128$. The minimal requirement of device yield (non-BD percentage) increases with the array size in order to maintain a reasonable array yield. Thus, BD interference should be recognized as one of the most critical concerns for developing future crossbar arrays.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9246681
Pages (from-to)5497-5504
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Issue number12
StatePublished - 2 Nov 2020


  • 1R
  • breakdown (BD)
  • crossbar array
  • resistive random access memory (RRAM)


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