Sputtered Ultrathin WO3 for Realizing Room-Temperature High-Sensitive NO2 Gas Sensors

Yu Chuan Chiu, Moumita Deb, Po Tsun Liu*, Hsiao Wen Zan*, Yun Ru Shih, Yue Kuo, Dun Bao Ruan, Kai Jhih Gan, Chih Chieh Hsu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this work, we used a commercial manufacturing process to obtain a WO3 semiconductor gas sensor to realize NO2 detection in parts-per-billion concentration at room temperature (25-27 °C). The radio-frequency (RF) sputtering process was used to deposit an ultrathin (down to 5 nm) WO3 sensing layer. With suitable control of the deposition ambient and the postannealing condition, the WO3 ultrathin-film resistor with a 50-μm line width can detect 100 ppb of NO2 without any heating setup. Notably, no nanometer process is required; hence, the production can be realized by current flat-panel display technology. By modulating the deposition condition, we investigated the influences of surface roughness, crystalline condition, and surface hydroxyl group levels on the sensing response. To achieve parts-per-billion (ppb) level detection, the ultrathin thickness is essential, and the high-level crystal together with the low-level surface hydroxyl group also enhances the sensitivity and the recovery. The humidity effect is also discussed to show an almost unchanged response in relative humidity (RH) from 30 to 70%. In summary, the WO3 sensor shows good sensing performance, including a high sensitivity, a wide detecting concentration range (17 ppm to 100 ppb), and fast response/recovery (30 s/∼21 s) at low NO2 concentration (0.68 ppm). Finally, the good enough selectivity, stability, and nondecayed sensing of the WO3-based gas sensor after 14 days were demonstrated.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5831-5840
Number of pages10
JournalACS Applied Electronic Materials
Issue number11
StatePublished - 28 Nov 2023


  • NO
  • RF sputtering
  • WO
  • oxide semiconductor
  • ppb level
  • room temperature


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