Spatiotemporal fusion of formosat-2 and landsat-8 satellite images: A comparison of “super resolution-then-blend” and “blend-then-super resolution” approaches

Tee-Ann Teo*, Yu Ju Fu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


The spatiotemporal fusion technique has the advantages of generating time-series images with high-spatial and high-temporal resolution from coarse-resolution to fine-resolution images. A hybrid fusion method that integrates image blending (i.e., spatial and temporal adaptive reflectance fusion model, STARFM) and super-resolution (i.e., very deep super resolution, VDSR) techniques for the spatiotemporal fusion of 8 m Formosat-2 and 30 m Landsat-8 satellite images is proposed. Two different fusion approaches, namely Blend-then-Super-Resolution and Super-Resolution (SR)-then-Blend, were developed to improve the results of spatiotemporal fusion. The SR-then-Blend approach performs SR before image blending. The SR refines the image resampling stage on generating the same pixel-size of coarse-and fine-resolution images. The Blend-then-SR approach is aimed at refining the spatial details after image blending. Several quality indices were used to analyze the quality of the different fusion approaches. Experimental results showed that the performance of the hybrid method is slightly better than the traditional approach. Images obtained using SR-then-Blend are more similar to the real observed images compared with images acquired using Blend-then-SR. The overall mean bias of SR-then-Blend was 4% lower than Blend-then-SR, and nearly 3% improvement for overall standard deviation in SR-B. The VDSR technique reduces the systematic deviation in spectral band between Formosat-2 and Landsat-8 satellite images. The integration of STARFM and the VDSR model is useful for improving the quality of spatiotemporal fusion.

Original languageEnglish
Article number606
Pages (from-to)1-20
Number of pages20
JournalRemote Sensing
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2 Feb 2021


  • Deep learning
  • Image fusion
  • Time-series satellite images
  • VDSR


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