A scanning probe microscopy-based technique for probing local ionic and electronic transport and their dynamic behavior on the 10 ms to 10 s scale is presented. The time-resolved Kelvin probe force microscopy (tr-KPFM) allows mapping of surface potential in both space and time domains, visualizing electronic and ionic charge dynamics and separating underlying processes based on their time responses. Here, tr-KPFM is employed to explore the interplay of the adsorbed surface ions and bulk oxygen vacancies and their role in the resistive switching in a Ca-substituted bismuth ferrite thin film.
- ionic dynamics
- oxygen vacancy
- surface potential distribution