Objectives: To explore associations between PCDS, incident dementia and mortality risk and evaluate the potential of its reversibility. Methods: 963 participants from the I-Lan Longitudinal Aging Study were followed up for 6 years for analysis. A subsample of 513 participants was invited to participate 3 years earlier. The 1.5 standard deviation lower age- and education-matched norms of neuropsychiatric assessments determined cognitive impairment. Weakness and slowness were defined by the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia 2019. PCDS was defined as cognitive impairment plus mobility impairment, i.e., weakness and/or slowness. Results: The prevalence of PCDS was 19.0% among 1709 participants aged 63.5 ± 9.0 years (from 50 to 90 years) and increased with age (14.7% in people aged 50–64 years, 19.5% in people aged 65–74 years, 36.7% in people aged 75–84 years and 45.5% in people aged ≥ 85 years, p for trend <0.001). 13.6% and 8.3% of participants had improved PCDS conditions in 513 participants at 3-year and in 963 participants at 6-year assessments. Of 118 participants with PCDS at baseline,36 (30.5%) returned to non-PCDS in 6 years. Being female and having good nutrition were potential associated factors. During the mean follow-up period of 5.9 ± 0.9 years, 182 deaths occurred in the 10,065 person-years. PCDS could predict the 6-year risk of mortality (HR 1.56, 95% CI 1.02-2.39, p = 0.012) and 6-year incident dementia (OR 3.42, 95% CI: 1.41–8.29, p = 0.007). Conclusions: PCDS significantly predict 6-year mortality and 6-year incident dementia. Reversibility of PCDS made it as an optimal target for intervention and prevention.
- Physio-cognitive decline syndrome