Simulation of photonic-crystal surface-emitting lasers with air-hole and air-pillar structures

Zi Xian Yang, Chia Yu Kuo, Gray Lin*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Photonic-crystal surface-emitting lasers (PC-SELs), with and without regrowth, are theoretically simplified as air-hole and air-pillar structures, respectively. In this paper, square-latticed air-hole and air-pillar PC-SELs are simulated by a three-dimensional coupled-wave theory model and the design guideline is illustrated with a PC basis of a right isosceles triangular and double circular shapes. The optimum PC filling factor is determined by infinite PC cavity analysis and the slope efficiency of finite-size PC-SEL is then calculated for the lowest threshold band-edge mode. In comparison with air-hole PC-SEL, air-pillar PC-SEL exhibits lower threshold gain, larger gain discrimination but lower slope efficiency. To achieve slope efficiency of comparable value, the cavity area of air-pillar PC-SEL is about four times larger than that of air-hole PC-SEL.

Original languageEnglish
Article number189
Number of pages12
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2021


  • Band-edge modes
  • Coupled-wave theory
  • Photonic crystals
  • Surface-emitting lasers


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