Selection of appropriate chinese terms to represent intensity and types of physical activity terms for use in the Taiwan version of IPAQ

Yiing Mei Liou, Clark J.C. Jwo, Kaiping Grace Yao, Li Chi Chiang, Lian Hua Huang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

193 Scopus citations


In order to analyze the health risks of insufficient activity by international comparisons, the first author obtained the permission to translate and develop a Taiwan version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The objective was to determine culturally sensitive Chinese translations for the terms " moderate”, " vigorous” and " physical activity” as well as to identify representative types of physical activity for Taiwanese. This study used discussions by 12 expert focus groups, 6 expert audits, a scale survey, field study, Cognitive Aspect Survey Methodology (CASM), dual independent translation and back-translation to establish a consensus on physical activity-related concepts, terminologies and types that define the intensity of common activities of Taiwanese by integrating both local and foreign studies. The Chinese terms " fei li”, " zhong deng fei li” and " shen ti huo dong”, respectively, were identified as suitable and adequate translations for the English terms " vigorous”, " moderate” and " physical activity”. The common Taiwanese activities were accurately categorized and listed in questionnaires, forming culturally sensitive scales. Taiwan versions of IPAQ’s self-administered long version (SL), self-administered short version (SS), and telephone interview short version (TS) were developed. Their content validity indices were.992,.994, and.980, as well as.994,.992, and.994 for language equivalence and meaning similarity between the English and Chinese versions of the IPAQ-LS, IPAQ-SS, and IPAQ-TS, respectively. Consistency values for the English and Chinese versions in terms of intraclass correlation coefficients were.945,.704, and.894, respectively. The IPAQ-Taiwan is not only a sensitive and precise tool, but also shows the effectiveness of the methodology (CASM) used in tool development. Subjects who did not regularly exercise and had an education less than a junior high school level underestimated the moderate-intensity physical activity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)252-263
Number of pages12
JournalThe journal of nursing research : JNR
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2008


  • Cognitive aspect survey methodology (CASM)
  • International physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ)
  • Moderate
  • Taiwan
  • Vigorous


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